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Grammar - Den Plural bilden

Schlagwörter: Owad for Business, Grammar, plural, street talk, special cases


Forming the plural for most words in English is easy – just add -s :


more than one pencil = pencils

more than one printer = printers

more than one office = offices


Words that end in -ch, -x, -s or an s-like sound require -es in the plural :

two of our customers are churches

our products are packaged in yellow boxes

we are a leading provider of liquid gases

you can reach our office by taking any one of three buses

our marketing targets two niches


Words ending in -is change to -es :


analysis › analyses

basis › bases

crisis › crises

emphasis › emphases

hypothesis › hypotheses

parenthesis › parentheses

synopsis › synopses

thesis › theses


Note that the -es ending on these words always sounds like “eez”.


Words that end in -y preced¬ed by a consonant require changing the -y to -ies :

one baby, two or more babies

one reality, two or more re¬alities

one gallery, two or more galleries

But if the -y is preceded by a vowel, simply add -s :

one drive bay, two or more drive bays

Words that end in -o :

Most words ending in -o take -es in the plural, but there are a few exceptions. They simply need to be learned or looked up:

one potato, two or more potatoes

one tomato, two or more tomatoes

one hero, two or more heroes

one veto, two or more vetoes

But:

one memo, two or more memos

one photo, two or more photos

one pro, two or more pros

one video, two or more videos


Words that end in -f or -fe usually change the f to a v and add -s or -es :

one knife, two or more knives

one leaf, two or more leaves

one shelf, two or more shelves

But not always:

one roof, two or more roofs


Family names are usually formed by adding -s. However, if the name already ends in -s, or ends with -x, -ch, -sh or -z, the plural is formed by adding -es:
the Bartons, the Joneses, the Mays, the Maddoxes, the Marches, the Marshes, the Marzes, the Marxes

Special cases

Of course, not all words follow these rules. Several nouns have irregular plural forms:

one child, two or more children

one woman, two or more women

one man, two or more men

one person, two or more people

one goose, two geese

one foot, two feet

one tooth, two teeth


Some words don’t change at all. This can be confusing. For example, one would think that if the plural of goose is geese, that the plural of moose should be meese. However, the plural of moose is moose, just as the plural of deer is deer and of fish is fish.

Here are a few business words that don’t change:

one, two or more crossroads

one, two or more headquarters,

one, two or more means

one, two or more series

one, two or more aircraft


Words from Latin or Greek

Many English words come from Latin or Greek. These usually take their original Latin or Greek ending in the plural:

addendum › addenda

appendix › appendices (Anhänge), appendixes (Blindarme)

curriculum › curricula

formula › formulae i

ndex › indices

medium › media

memorandum › memoranda

stimulus › stimuli (ending rhymes with “high”)


Compound nouns

Compound nouns such as edi¬tor-in-chief, manager-in-charge and mother-in-law are generally made plural by adding -s to the main noun:

editors-in-chief

managers-in-charge

mothers-in-law


Large numbers

Words like dozen, hundred, thousand and million take an -s in the plural when they are used to represent unspecific quantities:

dozens of people are waiting

hundreds were shipped late


However, when modified by a num¬ber, they do not take an -s:

three dozen people are waiting

several hundred were shipped late


Some words that look singular are always plural

When you use these words, make sure your verb is plural as well:

both, few, any, several, media, police

Some words that are plural in meaning have no plural

When you use these words, make sure your verb is singular, and don’t add -s!

advice, equipment, furniture, informa¬tion, knowledge, data

Schlagwörter: Owad for Business, Grammar, plural, street talk, special cases

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