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Grammatik - Verbindende Wörter und Phrasen

Schlagwörter: Grammar, Grammatik, English, Englisch, Phrasen

Linking words and phrases join clauses,
sentences and paragraphs together to allow
the writer or speaker to present his
or her ideas in a flowing manner.


In the following example, the linking constructs
are boldfaced:
ISSD announced its intention to merge
with RTF last month. In addition, the
company stated that it would be extending
its product line to focus on the needs
of Asian customers. At the same time,
ISSD will be selling its South American
consulting unit.


All linking words and phrases can be
reduced in meaning to fit into a category
governed by the conjunctions and, or or
but as follows:

Category “And”

Listing

Listing constructs can be further categorised
into the meanings of enumeration
or addition:


  • Enumeration:Enumeration constructs
    create a list of points being made,
    items being identified, etc. They are
    typically used in groups of words and
    phrases that belong together:

    first(ly), second(ly), third(ly), etc.

    to begin with, in the second place,
    moreover

    first, furthermore

    The end of an ascending enumeration
    may be marked by:

    last but not least, above all, finally,
    to conclude

    The beginning of a descending
    enumeration may be marked by:
    first and foremost, first and most
    importantly, most important


  • Addition : Addition constructs carry
    a meaning of reinforcement or comparison.
    Example reinforcement
    constructs are:

    above all, again, as well (as)

    especially, furthermore, in addition

    moreover, not only ... it also

    obviously, especially

    Example comparison constructs are:

    also, equally, both .. and ...

    in the same way, likewise, similarly


Transition

Transition constructs lead to the next
item in the sequence of thought. Examples
are:
now, regarding, turning to, with respect to

Summary

Summary constructs generalise or summarise
what has been stated. Examples are:

altogether, in brief, in conclusion, in short,
therefore, to conclude, to summarise

Reference

Reference constructs refer back to a
previous statement. Examples are:
for instance, for example, in other words, in
particular, notably, such as, that is, namely

Example
Example constructs integrate examples
into the sequence of thought. Examples are:

for example, for instance, to illustrate, to
demonstrate, such as

Result

Result constructs express a consequence
of what has been previously stated. Examples
are:

accordingly, as a result, because of, for
this/ that reason, so that, resulting in,
therefore, thus, consequently

Place

Place constructs direct the reader’s or
listener’s attention to another location.
Examples are:

above, below, to the left, at left, to the
right, at right, elsewhere

Time

Time constructs indicate when an event
has occurred, is occurring or will occur.
Examples are:

after a while, at the same time, currently,
eventually, formerly, initially, in the past,
meanwhile, presently, previously, simultaneously,
soon, subsequently, until, whenever

Category “Or”

Reformulation


Reformulation constructs are used to
express a thought or fact in another way
that helps people understand better.
Examples are:

in other words, in this/that case, that is
to say, to put it (more) simply

Replacement

Replacement constructs identify a replacement
or alternative for what has been
mentioned. Examples are:

alternatively, another possibility would be,
on the other hand, rather

Category “But”

Contrast


Contrast constructs serve to highlight
one fact or thought by comparing it with
another. Examples are:
conversely, in comparison, in fact, in reality,
instead, on the contrary, on one hand
.... on the other hand

Concession

Concession constructs indicate possible
problems with a previous statement.
Examples are:

admittedly, all the same, although this
may be true, despite this, even though,
however, in spite of, nevertheless, under
certain circumstances, yet

Using linking constructs

Linking words and phrases are used to
join thoughts together just as the simple
conjunctions and, or and but would be used.
The difference is that linking constructs are
selected based on the type of link the writer
or speaker is making. This technique calls attention
to the transition of ideas taking place
and helps the reader or listener absorb the
information with greater efficiency.

Schlagwörter: Grammar, Grammatik, English, Englisch, Phrasen

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