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Grammatik auf Englisch - Adverbien: Bildung und Gebrauch

Schlagwörter: Grammar, Grammatik auf Englisch, OWAD, Adverbien

An adverb is a word, clause, or phrase that indicates manner, time, place, degree, or frequency and answers questions like how, when, where, how much, and how often . Adverbs are used to modify verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, clauses, and even entire sentences.

Creating adverbs
-LY adverbs

Most adverbs that describe a manner of acting are created from adjectives, present participles, and past participles simply by adding the ending -ly. For example:

careful carefully (adjective)
close closely (adjective)
surprising surprisingly (present participle)
assured assuredly (past participle)

Michael works carefully.
Surprisingly, Manfred takes a close look at all proposals before they leave the office.
I can assuredly tell you that Manfred looks closely at all proposals before they leave the office.

Helpful spelling rules for adverbs
Adjective ends in -able or -ible: replace the final -e with -ly (terrible terribly)
Adjective ends with -y: replace -y with -ily (happy happily)
Adjective ends with -ic: replace -ic with -ically (economic economically)

The comparative and superlative forms of -ly adverbs are formed the same way as the comparative and superlative forms of the adjective: by adding -er and -est:

slow slowly slower slowest
mild mildly milder mildest

But note that the comparative and superlative are often formed with the words more and most when the adverb itself (ending with -ly) has more than two syllables:

careful carefully more carefully most carefully
close closely more closely most closely

Michael works slower than the others.
Michael always works more carefully than Susan.
Michael always works most carefully.
Manfred looks more closely at outgoing proposals than Tillman.

Irregular adverbs
You can use many adjectives as adverbs without changing their form. These adjectives usually describe the quality of an object. As with the original adjectives, their comparative and superlative forms are formed by adding -er and -est:

hard hard harder hardest
fast fast faster fastest

Michael works hard.
Michael works harder than the others.
Of everyone on staff, Michael works fastest.

A number of frequently used adverbs follow no specific rule. They must be memorized:

good well better best
bad bad/badly worse worst
far far further/farther furthest/ farthest
late late/lately later latest
little little less least

Adverbial clauses and phrases
When a group of words containing a subject and a verb is used as an adverb, it is an adverbial clause:

When Mr Henry calls , please transfer him directly to my line. We bought our sup plies from WebOfficeOnline to get free delivery .
When a group of words not containing a subject and a verb act as an adverb, it is an adverbial phrase:
She reads the paper in the cafeteria .

To tell if a word, clause, or phrase is acting as an adverb, test to see if it answers a question word: why , how , when , where , how much , how often . If it answers what kind , it’s an adjective.
Examples: How often? Frequently adverb Where In the cafeteria adverbial phrase What kind? Brown adjective

Using adverbs
Adverbs are generally placed before or after the verb, or before adverb, adjective, or phrase they modify. It is important to avoid separating the adverb from the word it modifies with another adverbial phrase or other sentence construct. Here are some examples of adverbs in use:

Modifying a verb
He works carefully.

Modifying an adverb
She always works too carefully.
He reacts to new problems almost automatically.

Modifying an adjective
The customer was totally dissatisfied.
The proposal was extremely detailed.

Modifying a phrase
Perhaps you would like to attend?
Surely the train will depart on time today, but yesterday it didn’t.

Modifying a sentence
Today we will begin relocating our call centre staff to the new building.
Finally we can start the project.

Order of adverbs
When multiple adverbs are used in a row, they are usually presented in the following order:

Susan reads the Wall Street Journal thoroughly in the cafeteria every morning at 8 to stay up-to-date.

Warning! Think carefully about what your adverb or adverbial phrase is modifying. Incorrect placement could lead to sentences like:
They reported that Falco, the Austrian rock star, had died on the five o’clock news .

Schlagwörter: Grammar, Grammatik auf Englisch, OWAD, Adverbien

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