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Grammatik auf Englisch - Adverbien: Mit oder ohne –ly ?

Schlagwörter: Grammatik auf Englisch, Englisch Grammatik, Englische Grammatik, Englisch Grammar, Gramatik auf Englisch, Englisch Gramatik, Englische Gramatik, Englisch Grammar, Englische Zeiten, Grammatik Zeiten Englisch, Gramatik Zeiten Englisch, Englisch Tenses

What is the difference between the adverbs hard and hardly ? Or late and lately ? Do you know the difference between the adverbial forms with and without -ly?

There are a number of adverbs that have two forms. One form is the same as the adjective, whilst the other has the form ‘adjective plus -ly’. Sometimes they have the same or similar meanings, but sometimes they are completely different.

Hard and hardly
The adverb hard means ‘with a lot of force or energetically’, whilst hardly means ‘only just’ or ‘almost not’, and in some cases ‘certainly not’. At work you may hear this joke from your boss:
Are you working hard or hardly working?
I didn’t hit him hard, I hardly touched him. It’s hardly my fault that Bayern Munich lost last night.

Fine and finely
Fine when used as an adverb means ‘in a satisfactory way’.
That suits me fine.
It was working fine yesterday.

The adverb finely can mean‘ thinly’, ‘ exactly’ or ‘excellently’.
Chop the herbs very finely ( thinly ).
a finely-tuned engine ( exactly )
a finely-dressed couple ( excellently )

Free and freely
Both of these adverbs can mean ‘without limit or restriction’, but only free can mean ‘without payment’.
The dogs ran free / freely in the park.
You can eat free in my restaurant.
You can speak freely.

High and highly
High means ‘far above the ground’, whilst highly is an intensifier meaning ‘to a large degree’ or ‘well’.
Virgin Galactic flies really high.
It’s highly amusing.

Just and justly
Just is an adverb with several meanings, including ‘now’, ‘exactly’, ‘only’, ‘almost’ and ‘very’. The adverb justly means ‘rightly’ or ‘correctly’.
He just arrived.
He was justly punished for his crimes.

Late and lately
Late means ‘near or after the end’. Lately means ‘recently’.
My girlfriend always arrives late.
I haven’t been to the pub much lately.

Most and mostly
Most can mean ‘the biggest’, ‘more than anything’ or ‘almost all’, and is used to form the superlative of adjectives and adverbs.
Which part of the film did you like most?
You’re the most beautiful woman I have ever seen.

Most can also mean ‘very’:
You’re a most remarkable man.

Mostly, however, means only ‘mainly’:
In the “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy”, the Earth is described as “mostly harmless”.
My friends are mostly vegetarians.

Right and rightly
Right means ‘exactly’, ‘all the way’, ‘immediately’ or ‘correctly’. It is also used to add emphasis. Right is used after verbs, and is usually informal.
The cricket match starts right after lunch.
He hit me right on the kisser.
Turn that jungle music right down.
You guessed right.

Rightly also means ‘correctly’. It is usually used only before verbs, and is usually informal.
I rightly predicted that England would not win the World Cup.

Right is also used in the following expression:
It serves you right.
( You got what you deserve .)

Sharp and sharply
Sharp can be used as an adverb to mean ‘punctually’.
The performance will start at 7:30 sharp.

In music, sharp refers to a note that is a halftone ( or just slightly ) higher than the standard or intended note.
The song is in the key of C-sharp.
He’s singing very sharp tonight.

It also means a big change of direction.
Turn sharp left ahead!

The adverb sharply means ‘harshly’ or ‘aggressively’.
She looked at him sharply.
I thought you spoke to her rather sharply.

Sure and surely
Sure is often used to mean ‘certainly’ in an informal style, especially in American English.
Can I borrow the Ferrari? Sure.

Surely can be used to express that you are certain or almost certain about something.
The responsibility surely rests with the manufacturer.

Surely ( not ) is used to express opinions or surprise.
Surely Greece will leave the Euro soon.
Surely you’re not going to spend the night in the haunted castle on Friday the 13th?
Can I borrow the Ferrari? Surely not!

Pretty and prettily
Pretty as an adverb is similar to rather. Prettily means ‘in a pretty way’.
It gets pretty cold in Moscow.
The little girl was dressed prettily.

Informal adverbs
In some cases, both forms of adverbs can be used with the same meaning. In this case, the adverbial forms without -ly are more informal:
The plane goes direct( ly ) to London.
Don’t talk so loud( ly ).
I’ll get back as quick( ly ) as I can.

The adjective form is required in certain expressions:
Go easy! Take it easy! Easy come, easy go. Easier said than done.
to play fair( ly ); to fight fair( ly )
go slow( ly ); drive slow( ly )

Real is often used instead of really before adjectives and adverbs in informal American English.
He drove real slow. He cooks real well.

Schlagwörter: Grammatik auf Englisch, Englisch Grammatik, Englische Grammatik, Englisch Grammar, Gramatik auf Englisch, Englisch Gramatik, Englische Gramatik, Englisch Grammar, Englische Zeiten, Grammatik Zeiten Englisch, Gramatik Zeiten Englisch, Englisch Tenses

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