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Grammatik auf Englisch - Ein "ing am Ende

Schlagwörter: Grammatik auf Englisch, Englisch Grammatik, Englische Grammatik, Englisch Grammar, Gramatik auf Englisch, Englisch Gramatik, Englische Gramatik, Englisch Grammar, Much Englisch, Many Englisch

In the English language there are two verb forms that can be used as nouns: gerunds ( or -ing forms ) and infinitives. Using either of these incorrectly isn’t a serious problem most of the time, but in certain cases it may completely change the meaning of a sentence.

Both gerunds and infinitives can be the subject or object of a verb.

Usage as the subject

As the subject of a verb, gerunds are used as nouns around 90% of the time and sound much more natural than infinitives, which are used to express an idea or an abstract concept.
Selling is all about persuasion. ( T he gerund is the normal usage. )
To sell is all about persuasion. ( T he infinitive has a more abstract meaning. )

Usage as an object

As an object in a sentence, the use of a gerund or infinitive is usually determined by the verb. Some verbs are normally followed by gerunds, and some by infinitives. Others can be followed by either, but the meaning changes.
He decided to sell his shares. Decide is always followed by an infinitive.

Incorrect: He decided selling his shares. Some verbs are followed by an object plus an infinitive.
The TV station invited advertisers to buy broadcasting time.
He asked his boss to participate.

Some verbs can be followed by an object plus gerund. A possessive form of the noun makes the sentence more formal.

She understood him saying no to the offer. ( He said no. )

She understood his saying no to the offer. ( More formal. )

Some verbs that are usually followed by a gerund can also be followed by an object plus infinitive.

The financial director advised selling the shares.

The financial director advised him to sell the shares.

She suggested asking your advice.

Incorrect: He advised to sell the shares.

Incorrect: She suggested me to ask your advice.

Go can be followed by a gerund to form expressions for many sports and recreational activities.

The CEO goes skiing every year.

Incorrect: I go to ski every year.

Gerunds are always used after prepositions. In expressions, to is sometimes a preposition, and not part of an infinitive.

It is a cost-effective way of reaching consumers.

I look forward to hearing from you.

Incorrect: I look forward to hear from you.

Different meanings

Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive, but with a difference in meaning.

He remembered posting the letter. ( He has a memory of posting the letter. )

He remembered to post the letter. ( He remembered he needed to post the letter. )

Regret is used in the same way:

I regret not going to the conference. ( I wish I had gone to the conference. )

I regret to inform you that your services are no longer required. (This is an expression used to deliver bad news: I regret to inform you ( that )… )

He stopped smoking. ( He gave up smoking. )

He stopped to smoke. ( He stopped what he was doing in order to smoke. )

You need to clean your room.

This room needs cleaning. ( The passive form. )

I tried to move the table, but it was too heavy. ( I made an effort to do something difficult or impossible. )

I tried moving the table to see how it looked. ( I experimented with moving the table. )

Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive with little difference in meaning. They are: cease, continue, hate, like, love, neglect, prefer and propose.

The general rule here is that using the gerund after the verb suggests a real activity, while using an infinitive suggests an idea or possibility of an activity.

He likes playing golf before work. ( He actually plays golf before work and enjoys it. )

He likes to play golf before work. ( He likes the idea or possibility. )

Many nouns are usually followed by infinitives.

TV advertising is an effective way to reach millions of consumers.

Sometimes infinitives are used to express purpose or intent and have the meaning in order to do something.

He stayed up late to complete the report. ( in order to complete it )

Do you work to live, or live to work?

The structure too + adjective/adverb + infinitive is also frequently used.

The product was too expensive to sell.

Also the pattern adjective/adverb + enough + infinitive:

It doesn’t print fast enough to compete with the market leaders.

and enough + noun( s ) + infinitive

Is there enough demand to launch a new product?

In addition to simple gerunds and infinitives, there are continuous, passive and perfect gerunds and infinitives as well as combinations of these forms.

Help can be followed by an infinitive or bare infinitive ( the infinitive without to ).

I helped ( to ) prepare the presentation.

Can’t help, can’t bear, and can’t stand are followed by a gerund.

Make and let + object are followed by a bare infinitive in the active form of the verb.

Want, would like, would love and would prefer are all followed by an infinitive. I would like to go to the cinema.

Incorrect: I would like going to the cinema

Schlagwörter: Grammatik auf Englisch, Englisch Grammatik, Englische Grammatik, Englisch Grammar, Gramatik auf Englisch, Englisch Gramatik, Englische Gramatik, Englisch Grammar, Much Englisch, Many Englisch

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