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Grammatik auf Englisch - Müssen und sollen richtig angewendet

Schlagwörter: Grammatik auf Englisch, Englisch Grammatik, Englische Grammatik, Englisch Grammar, Gramatik auf Englisch, Englisch Gramatik, Englische Gramatik, Englisch Grammar, Must Englisch, Shall Englisch, Should Englisch, Müssen Englisch, Sollen Englisch

Modal verbs are special verbs that
modify the meaning of other verbs to
add the feelings of necessity, certainty,
prohibition, recommendation, expectation,
probability, ability, willingness or
obligation.


The most common modal verbs are:

Can
Could
May
Might
Ought to
Shall
Should
Must
Need to
Need not
Would
Will

When expressing obligation, lack of obligation
or prohibition, it's important to know
how to use the modal verbs must, should
and need to.

Important grammar rules for all modal verbs

1. Modal verbs do not take the ending
"s" in the third person singular. He
can speak English. She must finish
her project today.

2. "Not" is used to negate modal verbs.
He should not speak with that
customer again. Note that the
negation of modal verbs with "not" is
often contracted: He shouldn't speak
with that customer again. In all
cases, negation using the contraction
sounds less emphatic than using the
full word "not".

Expressing strong obligation

Must is used to convey a feeling of strong
obligation. In the present or future, the
expressions have to (AmE) and have (got)
to (BrE) - which are not modal verbs - can
be used interchangeably with must. In the
past, had to must be used.

Mrs Jones must improve the quality of her
work before her next performance review.
We will have to book our flights before
tomorrow.
We had to submit to a thorough security
inspection at the airport.
We'll have to leave early because of a
previously scheduled appointment.

In the negative, the usual forms are did
not /do not have to.
She didn't have to take the train after all.
They don't have to attend the meeting.
In the future, common forms are haven't
got to and do not have to.
Haven't you got to be there at 10?
Don't you have to set up the conference
call in advance?

Note also that must may be used to imply
logical obligation.
You must be the man who called yesterday.

Expressing mild obligation

Should is used to express mild obligation.
In the past, should have is used.
You really should discuss your idea with
the regional manager.
You should have discussed your idea with
the regional manager before acting on it.

Expressing lack of obligation

Need not is used to express a lack of obligation.
The past form is need not have.
Because need not and need not have sound
rather archaic and formal, most native
English speakers will contract them. Some
speakers use don't need to and don't have
to instead of need not.
We needn't respond to their request
because it was not made through formal
channels.
We needn't have discussed our impending
downsizing effort - they already knew
about it.

Expressing prohibition

Must not is used to express prohibition.
In the past tense, was/were not allowed
to is used. These forms are also usually
contracted unless the overall effect should
be formal.
You must refrain from making sales
pitches during networking events. Our
goal during these events is simply to get
to know people better.
Participants were not allowed to have
their mobile phones switched on during
the event.
Most native speakers prefer to use should
not (in the past should not have) to dissuade
rather than prohibit. This is a form
of weak prohibition.
You should not reply to their request
before we've contemplated the potential
consequences.

Shades of meaning

Understanding modal verbs of obligation
can be difficult. The same word used in
various ways can result in various shades
of meaning. Here are a few guidelines that
will help clarify the more-common areas
of confusion:


  • Must is personal. Use must when you
    speak from a personal point of view,
    express your opinion or state what you
    think is necessary. You must do something
    about the current crisis.


  • Have to can be personal or impersonal.
    If your statement is personal, you can
    use must or have to interchangeably.
    When speaking about facts, rules or
    situations, however, have to is correct.
    I have to be at the train station at 7
    tomorrow morning.


  • Must can be used to talk about the
    present and future, but not the past.
    In the past, you need to use have to.
    I had to sit through three meetings
    yesterday.


  • Must not expresses obligation. Do not
    have to expresses lack of obligation.


  • Must is always stronger than should
    when expressing obligation.

Schlagwörter: Grammatik auf Englisch, Englisch Grammatik, Englische Grammatik, Englisch Grammar, Gramatik auf Englisch, Englisch Gramatik, Englische Gramatik, Englisch Grammar, Must Englisch, Shall Englisch, Should Englisch, Müssen Englisch, Sollen Englisch

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