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Grammatik - Wenn “oder” “und” sein sollte

Schlagwörter: Grammatik auf Englisch, Englisch Grammatik, Englische Grammatik, Englisch Grammar, Grammatik auf Englisch, Englisch Grammatik, Englische Grammatik, Englisch Grammar, Wenn “oder” “und” sein sollte

A conjunction is a word or phrase that joins two words or clauses together in a sentence. And, or, but, since and if are all conjunctions:

I’ve been working here since 2005.
I wouldn’t do that if I were you.
The lights are on but no one’s at home.
The plane landed on the runway and stopped outside the terminal.
To be or not to be, that is the question.

There are two kinds of conjunctions, coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions.

Coordinating conjunctions

Also known as coordinators, these conjunctions join clauses or words of equal importance in the sentence. The most important can be remembered using the acronym “FANBOYS”: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.

There are four kinds of coordinating conjunctions, cumulative, adversative, alternative and illative.

Cumulative conjunctions are used to add one statement to another. Common ones are and, not only … but also, as well as, and both … and.

Sophie is both beautiful and intelligent.
Failing to retain as well as attract new customers costs businesses huge sums of money.

Note the difference between English and German when using oder:

Ich hatte die Wahl zwischen Eis, Kuchen oder Keksen.
I had the choice between ice cream, cake and cookies.

( Here we are listing items in the collection, so and is used ).

Incorrect: I had the choice between ice cream, cake or cookies.

But note: Do you want ice cream, cake or cookies? ( Here we are not listing the items in a collection, but rather listing single options, so or is used. )

Adversative conjunctions are used to show contrast between two statements. But, still, yet, whereas and nevertheless are all examples.

We may be poor but at least we are happy.
In the UK, Christmas is celebrated on the 25th of December, whereas in France it is celebrated on the 24th.

Alternative conjunctions are used to present alternatives, sometimes indicating a choice. Or, either … or, neither …nor and otherwise are commonly used.

A shark has to constantly move forward or it dies.
I really enjoy my work, otherwise I wouldn’t do it.

Illative conjunctions are used to express an inference. For and so are examples. For used in this way has the same meaning as because or since, and introduces a reason for the previous clause.

He has spent a lot of time preparing, so the presentation is sure to be a success.
He must have left by now, for it is late.

Subordinating conjunctions

Also known as subordinators, they are used to introduce dependent clauses. The main clause is always the one without the conjunction. Common subordinating conjunctions include
after, although, as if, as much as, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, but, even if, even though, if, in that, in order that, lest, once, since, so that, than, that, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, whether, and while.

I told him that you were busy.
When the pie was opened, the birds began to sing.
Although he was tired, he couldn’t sleep.
I’m going for a walk this afternoon, unless it’s raining.
Wake me up before you go to work.
I always work at the computer while I eat lunch.
Wherever I go, I’m always glad to get home.
It’s better than a poke in the eye.

Correlative conjunctions
Sometimes conjunctions combine with other words to form correlative conjunctions.
The most common are:
both … and, not only … but also, not … but, either … or, neither … nor, no sooner … than, so … that, such … that, whether ... or and as … as.
Most of them are coordinating conjunctions.

He was neither a borrower nor a lender.

The traffic was so bad that he was an hour late for the meeting.
You either take it or leave it.
I can’t decide whether to go to the concert or stay at home.
No sooner did he put it down than it was stolen away.
No sooner had he finished building the house than his daughter was born.

Note that no sooner is always immediately followed by did or had and the subject and verb are inverted. Inversion can also occur after not only.

He not only delivers presents, but he also rides a flying sleigh pulled by reindeer.
Not only does he deliver presents …
I was so embarrassed that I went as red as a beetroot.

As and like

As and like are used to indicate similarity and are often confused. Technically speaking, as is a conjunction, whereas like is a preposition. As can be used to introduce a clause, but like should only be used to introduce a noun.

We drink tea without milk, as they do in China.
He is like his father.

In modern English, like can also be used informally as a conjunction.

Nobody loves you like I do.

Like can also be used informally instead of the expressions as if and as though.

It looks as if it’s going to rain.
It looks as though it’s going to rain.

Like and such as can be used to give examples. Like is more informal.

In multinational companies, like BP, …
Some European countries, such as France and Germany, …

Schlagwörter: Grammatik auf Englisch, Englisch Grammatik, Englische Grammatik, Englisch Grammar, Grammatik auf Englisch, Englisch Grammatik, Englische Grammatik, Englisch Grammar, Wenn “oder” “und” sein sollte

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