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Grammatik auf Englisch - Simple future

Schlagwörter: Grammatik, English, Simple Future, Englisch lernen

Most languages form the future tense by conjugating the verb with a future ending. For example, in Italian, I love is io amo. The future tense is formed through conjugation: io amerò.

Linguistically, German has no simple future tense. In German, futurity is expressed by using words that imply future action (Ich fliege morgen nach Berlin), or by using auxiliary verbs in the present tense that combine with the action verb (Ich werde morgen nach Berlin fliegen). As a Germanic language, it should be no surprise that English works the same way.

In English, the “simple future” is used to express an action that occurs sometime in the future. It has two different forms: one constructed with auxiliary verbs such as will, shall, should, etc., and one constructed using the construct be going to.

Abbildung Future Continues

Auxiliary form:

positive: auxiliary + (adverb) + verb

negative: auxiliary + (negating adverb) + verb

auxiliary = will, shall, should, can, may, might, must

adverb = ever, only, etc.

negating adverb = not, never, etc.

Will is the most commonly used and most flexible auxiliary because it is neutral in meaning. Shall can be used in place of will to create a formal sound, and can also imply an affirmation. Should implies obligation or commitment. Can implies the ability to commit to the action, and may imply that the commitment is not firm. May lends a minimum sense of commitment to the action and may also imply conditionality. Must implies the greatest sense of commitment or obligation and is usually used when the action is quite close to the present time.


Examples:

We will (not) meet them tomorrow.

We should (not) meet them tomorrow.

We can (not) meet them tomorrow.

We may (not) meet them tomorrow.

We might (not) meet them tomorrow.

We must (not) meet them tomorrow.

Will we (not) meet them tomorrow?

Will we only meet them tomorrow?

Should we (not) meet them tomorrow?

Should we only meet them tomorrow?



Be going to form:

positive: am/is/are + going to + verb

negative: am/is/are + negating adverb + going to + verb

negating adverb
= not, never


Examples:

We are going to meet them tomorrow.

We are not going to meet them tomorrow.

Are we (not) going to meet them tomorrow?

I am going to go to London.

I am never going to go to London.

We are going to end the meeting.

We are not going to end the meeting.

Are we (not) going to end the meeting?

They are going to sign the deal next month.

They are not going to sign the deal next month.

Are they (not) going to sign the deal next month?


The be going to form can in most cases be used interchangeably with the auxiliary form. However, there are some situations where they have two different meanings. These must simply be learned and practised:

Use will to express a voluntary action
Will often implies that the speaker has offered or refused to do something voluntarily:

I will (I’ll) send you the information today.

I will not reply to that e-mail.

Okay, I will try calling back later.

Will you help me enter this data?



Express a plan with be going to
Use be going to to imply that the action is a plan or intent. There is no feeling of a voluntary offer or commitment. It also does not matter if the plan is realistic or not, or if the intent is genuine:

I am going to send you the information today.

We are going to attend the show in February.

I am going to handle that research next week.



Use will to express a promise
Will is often used in business to imply a promise. For contrast, use is/are going to in each of these examples to see if you can detect the difference:


I will call you tomorrow.

We’ll be supportive.

We will consider that to be sensitive information.



Use either form for a prediction
Both forms can be used interchangeably to express a prediction, with no difference in meaning:

We will be the market leader by the end of next year.

We are going to be the market leader by the end of next year.

Margaret Singentaler will be our next CEO.

Margaret Singentaler is going to be our next CEO.



The future is not used in time clauses
In English, the future tense is never used in clauses beginning with an expression of time such as: when, while, etc. Use the simple present instead:

Correct: After we arrive, we will check in at the hotel before meeting them for dinner in town.

Incorrect: After we will arrive, we will check in at the hotel before meeting them for dinner in town.

Schlagwörter: Grammatik, English, Simple Future, Englisch lernen

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