Smalltalk auf Englisch
Englisch Smalltak - Smalltak auf Messen und Reisen, reden über Job und Familie, Urlaub, Sport und das Wetter. Fragen nach dem Befinden. Unterhalten auf Englisch.

Korrespondenz auf Englisch
englische Korrespondenz, englische Briefe verfassen, englische Angebote, englische Mahnbriefe, englische Weihnachtsgrüße, Beschwerdebriefe auf Englisch, Zahlen auf Englisch Korrespondenz

Geschäftsreise auf Englisch
Englisch für die Geschäftsreise, Englisch auf Reisen, Business-Englisch auf Geschäftsreisen, Englisch lernen für Geschäftsreisen

Telefonieren auf Englisch
Englisch Anrufbeantworter, Anruf entgegennehmen auf Englisch, Nachricht hinterlassen auf Englisch, Buchstabieren auf Englisch, Begrüßung auf Englisch

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Besprechungen auf Englisch, English for Meetings, Englisch für Meetings, Business English Meetings, Meetings in Englisch, Meetings Englisch, Business Englisch Meetings, englischsprachige Meetings

Grammatik auf Englisch
Englische Grammatik, Zeiten in Englisch, Indirekte Rede in Englisch, Präpositionen auf Englisch, englische Satzzeichen, Bedingungssätze auf Englisch, aktiv und passiv Englisch, Konditionalsätze auf Englisch


Smalltalk auf Englisch - Wachstumsmotor Klimaanlage

Schlagwörter: Smalltalk Englisch, Smalltalkthemen, Englisch lernen, Geschäftsenglisch

In Southern Arizona, in the American Southwest, daytime winter temperatures frequently hover around 22°. The nights may cool to around 7°, and during a storm it might even snow, but as a rule, the days are sunny and warm. T-shirt weather.
In April, visitors come from all over the world to see red sunsets comparable with those on Mars, to see the desert flora — saguaros, ocotillos, and prickly pears — in full bloom, and to have long evening meals on rocky restaurant terraces soaked in Southwestern charm. And by the end of May, the visitors are gone. The temperatures soar, and the inhabitants — at least during the day — go into hiding in their air-conditioned offices and homes, coming out only when the sun begins to set.
Before the 1950s, cities like Phoenix and Tucson, where summer high temperatures often hover around 43°, were significantly smaller. In 1940, for example, 65,414 people lived in Phoenix. Since its founding in 1867, the city’s population grew slowly every year. The change came in the 1950s, when air conditioning became widely available for business and home use. In 1950, the population had almost doubled to 106,818. Only ten years later, it had quadrupled to 439,170. Explosive growth began. Today, with over 1.5m residents, Phoenix is the sixth largest city in the US, and is projected to become the fourth largest by 2020.

Early AC
Benjamin Franklin, the ultimate inventor, was one of the first AC pioneers. He and Cambridge University professor John Hadley noted that when liquids like water evaporate, a cooling effect results. Then they found that when alcohol and other volatile liquids evaporate — which they do faster than water — the resulting cooling effect is so strong that it can freeze water.
But Benjamin Franklin wasn’t really the first to discover evaporative cooling. In Ancient Rome, the wealthy had pipes built into the walls of their villas. These would circulate water from the viaducts through the house to achieve a cooling effect. During the days of the Pharaohs, Egyptians used to hang wet mats over their doors to cool their rooms.
People still do this today in many parts of the world. In fact, Mexicans brought the practice to Arizona, which at one time was part of Mexico. Many older homes in Southern Arizona and other desert climates around the world still don’t have an air conditioner. They use something else: an evaporative cooler — a modern device that makes the wet-mat process extremely efficient.
The typical evaporative cooler is a metal box positioned on the roof of a building in the baking, direct sun. Each side of the box is outfitted with a panel covered with slits to let the air pass through. A mat made of straw is then mounted on the inside of each panel. On the floor of the cooler is a pool of water about 20 cm deep. A pump draws the water from the pool and pumps it up to a ‘spider’. The spider is a network of plastic tubing mounted on the inside roof of the cooler that draws the water straight up and distributes it onto the top of the straw mat on each side. A fan draws the outside air in through the mats — cooling the air inside the cooler to temperatures just above freezing through the evaporative process — and pumps the cold air into the house below. A ‘float’, like the device in a toilet, helps keep the water level in the pool constant. It’s genius, simple, low-cost, and very environmentally friendly.
Unfortunately, evaporative coolers only work in extremely dry desert climates, and they only work during the dry season. During the July and August Monsoon Season in Arizona, for example, the process no longer works. With temperatures still reaching 40°, residents with ‘coolers’ are left cooling themselves like most people in the rest of the world: with electric fans and good old-fashioned hand fans. For the rest of the warmer world — most of the US in summer, India, Australia, and many areas of Europe — the evaporative process fails because the relative humidity is too high.

Modern AC
In the late 1800s, Americans found they had the money, resources, and motivation to pick up where the Romans had left off. The recent invention of electricity was the main enabler. In 1902, a young New York engineer named Willis Carrier invented a device that forced air through water-cooled coils. The purpose of the air was to cool the printing plant where Willis worked. It was a success, and Willis went to work on improving the concept. The result was the first air conditioner powered by a compressor. The new apparatus was put to work soon after in 1925 at New York City’s Tivoli movie theatre. The air-conditioned movie theatre was born — and so was the tradition of jamming into air-conditioned movie houses on hot days.
During the 1930s, air conditioning — sometimes referred to as refrigeration — spread across the US to department stores, offices, trains, and other public venues. Summer economic productivity soared. By 2007, 86% of all US homes had AC. In the 1970s, this usually consisted of a portable unit installed in a window. Today, most AC systems in the US are central.
AC is still unusual in Europe. While it’s easy to think this is because Europe is cooler than the US, this isn’t necessarily the case. Southern Europe from Portugal to Greece and beyond are comparable to the US Sun Belt, and Northern Europe is by no means cooler than the northern parts of the US and Canada, where AC is also popular.

How it works
An air conditioner isn’t much different than an evaporative cooler in concept — it’s simply more effective and works in any climate. Here’s how:

  • Fans in the building blow air across the unit’s coils, which are filled with a refrigerant. In the past, this was often Freon, a CFC that damaged the Ozone Layer. This was replaced in the 1980s with more environmentally friendly refrigerants.
  • The refrigerant absorbs heat from the air and at the same time causes moisture in the air to condense. The condensate is disposed of, and the heat causes the refrigerant to turn into a gas. The air in the building becomes colder and drier. This all takes place in the evaporator, which is in the building.
  • The gaseous refrigerant is sent to a compressor located outside of the building. It compresses the refrigerant back into a liquid state, causing heat to be released into the environment. The refrigerant then returns to the evaporator and starts all over again.

Schlagwörter: Smalltalk Englisch, Smalltalkthemen, Englisch lernen, Geschäftsenglisch

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